Because of its versatility and high yield, mustard is a popular crop that farmers are eager to cultivate. Because mustard seeds are so rich in bioactive ingredients such as polyunsaturated fat acids and antioxidants, like phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and tocopherols, they have become an important source of these bioactive ingredients. Because mustard is a natural ingredient in food creation, and other industries, it has become a popular material for the creation of new products. These mustard-infused foods have superior properties to the control products. Most improvements are in microbiological safety, shelf life, lipid oxidation speed, protein content, and overall product acceptance. Because of the high levels of erucic acids in mustard seeds and glucosinolates in them, it has not been widely used as a human food ingredient or animal feed. There are now mustard varieties that contain lower levels of erucic acids and glucosinolates. This literature review identifies the bioactive components found in mustard seeds. It also outlines the potential uses of mustard seeds as food or as a health-promoting product.
Pre-made and semi-finished meals have become increasingly popular due to the fast pace of modern life and lack of time for cooking. These products were marketed as being affordable and tasty, with less concern for the product’s composition. Only recently, with the rise in people suffering from cancer, heart disease, or other health issues, have manufacturers begun to consider the impact of food trends on their health. Now, people pay more attention to the labels on the food they purchase and make their own meals. The demand for healthy nutrition is growing year by year. Producers must alter their products. [ 2] The number of healthy food products on the market continues to grow. Researchers and producers are also looking for plants that have been forgotten and are rich in bioactive compounds, such as Jerusalem artichokes or black lilac.
The plant mustard, which has been around since prehistoric times and is rich in bioactive ingredients, is well-known. There are many species of mustard, including white.
Mustard is an evergreen plant. It is a member of the Brassicaceae (previously Cruciferae).
White mustard is thought to have originated in the Mediterranean, but has since been introduced throughout North and South America and Australia, New Zealand and the Middle-East as well as India, North Africa and North Africa. It is a spring-flowering plant that can live for 80 to 125 days. [ 7 ]
Black mustard is a product of two sources: the Mediterranean and the Middle-East. It can be found all across Europe, North Africa and Asia Minor.
Brown mustard is also known as Indian mustard, Chinese mustard, leaf mustard and vegetable mustard. It’s more resistant to low rainfall, high temperatures, late sowing and other environmental stresses than rapeseed. It produces more dry matter than rapeseed
Wild mustard, also known as charlock or field mustard, is a common species all over the globe. It was once used for oil and mustard production. It is one of the most problematic weeds because of its high seed germination rate, competitive annual growth, and long seed-germination times. Wild mustard has natural resistance to herbicides.
Ethiopian mustard , also known as Abyssinian yellow mustard , is an important oleic species originating from Africa. The seed ripening time is between 150 and 180 days. Both the seeds as well as the leaves can be used to make food. It can be found in North-eastern Africa, France, Spain and Australia. It can be found in north-eastern Africa, some parts of Canada, France and Spain as well as Australia and China.
This article focuses on prepared mustard and its bioactive ingredients. It also discusses the potential uses of mustard seeds in industry, medicine, and preservative-free foods.
Characterization of mustard lipid compounds
The fat content in mustard seeds is high at 23%-47%. It is dominated by erucic acids (26.5%-36.5%). The proportion of other fat acids depends on the species. White mustard oil has a high content of oleic acids (22%); brown and black mustard oils have a higher level of linoleic (19.5%-22%). Linolenic acids can also be found in significant amounts (9%-15%) in all mustard seeds. Due to its high fat content, mustard is a good choice for spring oil plants. Mustard oil is used to cook for its spicy and hot flavor. It is especially popular in Asia, particularly in India and China. The problem with mustard oil (cis 13-docosenoic acids; Fig. 1) – A monounsaturated fat acid that builds up in the body’s tissues. Myocardial Steatosis can be caused by consuming a high amount of erucic acids. Having a diet high in erucic acids can cause myocardial steatosis. Fernandez-Escobar and colleagues presented the first reports of obtaining zero-erucic acids.
Description of glucosinolates found in mustard seeds
The Brassicaceae plant family is rich in glucosinolates. These mainly occur in the seeds. These are secondary metabolites, thioglycosides which are rich in sulfur. Fig. 2. There are three types of glucosinolates. They can be classified according to the type and position of the side chains (aliphatic or aromatic, or both). In the Brassicaceae plant family, the most common glucosinolates are sinalbin (0.1-1.1% of white mustard), sinigrin (0.8%-0.9% of brown mustard and 0.4%-0.9% of black mustard), gluconapine, glucobrassicin, progoitrin, glucoiberin, glucoraphanin, and neoglucobrassicin. Mustard seeds from different geographical regions show heterogeneity of their glucosinolate profiles. Glucosinolates are durable and resistant to increased temperatures. They can be hydrolysed easily by the enzyme myrosinase. This enzyme occurs in the tissues Brassicaceae and is released from tissues after cell damage, crushing or other processing. Another compartment houses myrosinase or glucosinolates.
Mustard seeds contain antioxidant compounds
Antioxidant compounds, such as phenolic compounds, are found in mustard seeds, including 3,4-di-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, and sinapic acid. These compounds are also found in black mustard seeds. These compounds are also found in black mustard seeds. [ 47]
To increase the antioxidant properties of mustard seeds, it is possible to select the germination conditions for each variety. White and black mustard seeds could have 49% and 44%, respectively, of total phenolic compounds. You can find phenolic compounds in flour and seeds